The city of Amman is the capital of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the center of the governorate of the capital. The kingdom's largest city and one of the largest Arab cities in terms of population, with a population of about 4 million in 2014, makes it one of the fastest-growing cities in the world. The city is located in the center of the kingdom, on the 31st parallel in the north and 35th length in a region where there are many mountains. First, it grew up in the valleys between the mountains, and the inhabitants thereof were oppressed. So they rose up the foothills and continued to expand through its peaks until the city spread along its outskirts over 20 mountains.
From top up towards clockwise: The horizon of the city is apparently from the Sports City, the Temple of Hercules in the Citadel of Oman, the Umayyad Palace, the Ottoman Hejaz railway station, the Roman Amphitheater at night, the Abdou Suspension Bridge, the King's Founding Mosque, behind which is the Magarghadan mite.
Map of Oman's main streets and neighborhoods
|Title||Ammon, Philadelphia, Seven Hills, Winner|
|History of establishment|| |
|capital of|| |
|Capital Master||Yousef Al-Shawarba (temporary)|
|area||1,680 km 2 (650 km²) km²|
|height||777-1,400 m (2,564 ft)|
|population census||4 million people (2014 census)|
|population density||0.002 inhabitants/km 2|
|Twin City|| |
São Paulo (1997-)
Central Province (2006-)
San Francisco (2010-)
Nour Sultan (1999-)
|timing||EET (Eastern European Time +2 Greenwich)|
|Daylight Time||+3 Greenwich|
|Zip Code||11,110 (11,110-17,198)|
|Photo exhibition of Amman (city) - Wikimedia Commons|
Oman is considered the commercial and administrative center of Jordan and its economic and educational heart. Oman has become a attraction for many Arab communities due to its distinguished location and contemporary architecture. Oman also attracts many tourists annually from Western Europe, North America, Australia, Japan and neighboring and nearby Arab countries. Oman's location at such a strategic location in the Levant and the Middle East has brought its position to control the national economy and drive 90% of national investment.
Amman dates back to the 1,000th BC, and is one of the world's oldest populated cities to date. Oman is an ancient city built on the ruins of a city known as Rabbu Ammon, then Philadelphia, then Oman, as a derivation of Rabbu Ammon, and the Ammonites used it as their capital. The city was built on the hills of seven and was apparently the center of the region at the time, one of the four capitals of the Levant, and also one of the ancient Levantine cities that became the capital of the Emirate of East Jordan and then the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan after its independence from Britain in 1946.
Modern Amman is home to a diverse group of people of different origins from different regions. Some come from nearby Jordanian cities, while others come from Palestine, including the Caucasus, Syria and Iraq.
The Greater Amman Municipality has recently witnessed major development, with Amman expanding as never before. The North Amman City Plan won international awards, including the World Leadership Award for Urban Planning and the City Award for Asia 2007. There are 22 administrative areas in the Amman Municipality, each with an integrated staff area. In administrative terms, there is the 68-member Greater Amman Municipality Council, which is headed by the mayor of the capital, and the council is divided into 14 different committees.
Oman has been ranked as one of the best cities in the Middle East in terms of economy, environment, labor market and socio-cultural factors.
Label and date
The history of Oman dates back more than 7,000 years BC. Many cultures have passed by, and the ruins spread throughout the city have shown them. During this long period, the city has seen many civilizations, the most important of which were the Ammonites. The Roman amphitheater is one of the largest remaining monuments in the city. The mountain of Al-Qalaa reflects the various effects of the Ammonia, Greek, Roman, Byzantine and Umayyad civilizations. Additionally, the stoning of the Al-Malouf in the Jabal Amman area, which overlooks the Saqra Valley, is what remains of the prehistoric civilizations of nature and its elements, such as the sun, moon and stars.
The first human presence in Amman in the ruins of Ain Ghazal in the east of the capital dates back 9,000 years. Excavations have revealed that this area is one of the richest sites in the modern pre-potter era, and that the village has lived without interruption. Ein Ghazal was an agricultural and pastoral settlement built of unattractive stones. The buildings were rectangular and straight walls. The floors were paved and then cut short with a polished plaster, which was painted red. The most important feature of Ein Ghazal is the discovered human statues, which have been found in the center of the site in two sets of human sculptures, one of the world's rare ones.
He came to Amman the Hittites and the Hyxus, and then to the tribes of the Old Amalekites, followed by the tribes of Bani Ammon, or the Ammonites, who gave the city their name, which they initially called Rabbat Ammon. The city of Ammon means the capital or the King's House. The Ammonites took Mount Castle as their headquarters in the city, and it is currently the supervisor of downtown Amman.
The Assyrians lay west in the corner of the Ammonites area, where they could not initially stand their face. The Ammonites joined an Aramaic Pact to resist the Assyrian influence at the beginning of the ninth century B.C., but the Assyrians captured the Ammonites. The Assyrian king, Sennacherib, decided to grant Ammon autonomy. Assyrian control had an impact on security, enabling Ammonites to control much of the roadways of commercial convoys. The Babylonians, who continued to attack the southern parts of the Assyrian Empire, resisted, negatively affecting the economic situation. Under King Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonians controlled it.
The Babylonians inherited Assyrians' properties in Asia in 612 B.C. The King of Egypt invaded the Levant in 590 B.C., Palestine and eastern Jordan. Nebuchadnezzar, then king of the Babylonians, took over the people of Jerusalem in 586 B.C.E. and brought the country back to his dominion.
In 539 B.C., the Persian Cyrus was able to eliminate the Babylonian Empire and establish the Persian Empire, and then the Persians took over Palestine and Jordan, and entered Amman, and then became the Persian Empire. The Persians granted Oman autonomy between 540 and 332 BC, but the Persians were eliminated in 332 BC and the Greek Empire began.
The Ptolemaic Greeks took control of the area, including Rabbu Ammon, whose name was replaced by Ptolemy II in 285 BC as "Philadelphia" — meaning the city of brotherly love; According to Chief Philadlivius, he made Mount Castle a site of temples, like Mount Acropolis in Athens. The region of Iraq of the Prince has recovered during this period, according to the palace of King Tobiah, known as Prince Iraq, or Al-Abd Palace.
Oman became part of the Nabatieh and Saloian states until it was seized by Roman King Herod in 30 BC. The city entered the Roman era and then the Byzantine into the mid-seventh century.
The Roman and then Byzantine periods were 63-636. The city has become part of the Dicabolos Pact, a coalition of ten cities today in Jordan, Syria, and Palestine. Philadelphia was rebuilt in the days of Roman rule to include a Roman-style amphitheater, paved streets, and columns. During the days of the Byzantine rule, the Christian seat was located and many churches were built, but the city was no longer as prosperous as it was. The Persians arrived in 614 and re-occupied it, but their rule was short and ended when the Muslim armies arrived.
There are still Roman ruins in the city today, the most important of which is Al-Foum Square and the Roman amphitheater. The tumor is located between Jabal al-Qalaa and Jabal al-Joufa in front of the Roman amphitheater in central Amman. The size of the tumor and theater is a total of 7600 square meters, and it is most likely to date back to the second century AD, specifically between 138 and 161 AD during the period of Tsar Antonios Pius. Today, a large-fountains park is built alongside Al-Foma, which is used as a shelter to escape traffic and shopping jams in downtown Amman. The square was surrounded by three sides of street poles, from which one can see only the columns in the southern part of the square, adjacent to the staircase. The Romans built an underwater drainage system.
As for the Byzantines, they leave several churches, where the excavations of the Public Antiquities Department in Amman uncovered churches dating back to the fourth century until the eighth, during the rule of the Byzantine in the suburbs of the city, in the areas of Al-Suwayfiya, Khalda, Al-Rabia, Al-Jubayha, Jawiz, Al-Bissa, Qwisma, stoning, the chair, Luebda, Luhayda, Loubda, Loubya, Loubi in the Loubi in the arts circuit, Loubi.
This era began after the Islamic conquest of Damascus in 635. Yazid Bin Abi Sufyan's army was able to open Amman. This led to the end of the Byzantine state of Al-Ghassasneh, which was in control of the Balqa region, of which Amman was a part. Amman or Ammon.
In the Umayyad era, the Omayyad built a large palace on Jabal al-Qalaa, and Amman became an administrative center where the prince resides, where money is beaten, and its garrison is monitoring the trade caravans, guarding the Hajj route, and ponds of water as a blue pond and a castle. When the situation reached the Abbasid state, battles took place in the land of Kura Amman (the center of Adrai) in which walls and fortresses were destroyed in an internal military confrontation. Historians suggest that the Abbasid era was fortified in Amman when some Omanis rose to demand a caliphate under Caliph Mamun bin Rashid.
Oman under the Fatimid era was a concentration of troops, but in the late 11th century foreign pressure began with the arrival of the crusaders. In 1184, Saladin Al-Ayoubi passed through Amman on his way to Al-Karak. At that time, she became part of the Ethiopian state. During the Mamluk era, Oman experienced stability and its markets flourished during the hajj season. Amman received the attention of Bebers, who appeared to care for him, when he ascended the throne of the Mamluk state in Egypt and the Levant. Under Sultan Qalawun in 1279, the state moved from Salt to Amman, and in 1355, Mamluk built a school in Amman to teach the Hanafi sect.
In 1516, the Ottoman Empire was ruled by a number of rulers, and Ottoman Turks entered Oman. But then they were forgotten until the end of the nineteenth century, as a result of several earthquakes and epidemics such as plague, which began in 1878, with an increase in the population. The Jordanian Museum of Antiquities has some of the monuments of all these civilizations through its successive eras.
Al-Maqdisi said about her in his book: "The best territorial division," he says, is that Amman is one of three cities like Mecca. "I saw three glasses: Oman in the Arabic Travel Literature Book, which was published in the book of Liaquat al-Hamawi's International Dictionary of Biography, Three Verses in which the Prophet Mohammed al-Ansari wrote:
|I say in Amman and do you like it||To the people of goods, if a beneficial hardship occurs|
|He gave a relief, a sick wind made you sad||And the lightning of the two giants is shining|
Modern Amman was established at the end of the nineteenth century, with the arrival of the first Circassian immigrants from the Shapsug tribes to settle near the Flood of Oman and the Roman amphitheater in 1878, As a result of their forced displacement by Russian Cesarean forces, who were able to complete the occupation of their homeland in the North Caucasus in 1864 after a fierce fight against these forces, which were considered one of the strongest European armies for more than a hundred years. It then emptied its historic national homeland by displacing them into the neighboring Ottoman State, replacing settlers from pro-Russian peoples such as the Cossacks, Georgians, and Russian Ukrainians themselves. Eastern Jordan was one of the Ottoman regions at the time when the Ottoman Empire sent Sharkas down. Amman, the ancient city, was Jordan's first place where Sharkasa had descended since 1878. The Thracian immigrants were peasants who cultivated land, raised cattle, and built homes and mosques. The Ottoman authorities distributed arable land to them, reviving the village and bringing it back to life. After that, Oman became a magnet for more people from different directions. Oman was one of the areas where water was plentiful, and in 1933 there were 1,700 circuses.
Oman has been occupied by other groups of common immigrants from the North Caucasus after their country was occupied by Russian Cesarean armies in 1864. They live in neighborhoods that still carry their names, such as the Muhajireen, the Shapsug, the Cypriot Taey neighborhood, and the Isthmus. People came to Amman and settled there over the next years. Groups of Armenians, Kurds, Chechens, Chams, Jerusalemites, Jerusalemites, Hijazi, and others provided Jordanian society with an important part of its fabric.
At the end of the ninth century, the Ottoman Empire set out to establish a Oman-centered state. The proposed draft mandate states: "The Syrian country currently consists of the state of Damascus, the state of Beirut and the state of Jerusalem. However, this area is vast, almost half the size of Anatolia. "The province can be built in Amman, with the name Amman State or Maamoura Al-Hamidiyeh, and the name of Maan, Al-Shawbak, Hasbun, Al-Salt, Ain Al-Zarqa and the rest of the places as residents." Al-Humaidiya proposed that the formation of Amman Province would ensure security on the road it cuts from Damascus to Medina. This was accompanied by the Ottoman Empire's thinking of constructing a railway that would start in Damascus and reach Yemen, along the eastern coast of the Red Sea. However, Kamal Pasha, who conceived the proposed project, expressed his fear that this road might be attacked by foreign powers, such as the English, who are trying to occupy Egypt, which hinders the movement of Ottoman forces going to Hejaz and Yemen.
Although the new mandate project remained an idea, and was not implemented, it was still present in the minds of Ottoman politicians and military personnel in managing the concerns and dangers of internal and external security. Beginning in 1878, they encouraged the stability of Circassians and Chechens, along a strategic line, stretching from Manbij, Homs, and the Golan Valley to Oman, where unrest and rebellion against the state were commonplace. Circassians did not realize the extent of this role, and they found themselves in the open. They faced difficulties with patience, effort and challenge, depending on themselves. They started to reclaim land and cultivate it, and they started building new villages here and there, such as Amman, Nawar, Wadi al-Seer, Sawileh and others. Al-Circassians arrived at the beginning of their arrival in Amman, coming from Nablus and the Khirbet al-Sharkas area of General Akka. Most of the first group of Circassians, in 1878, was made up of the Shapsug tribe, where they lived among the city's archeological buildings, in the halls of the Roman amphitheater and the caves surrounding it.
The Hijazi railway contributed to a significant increase in the population of the city, especially when it was linked to the city through the Amman station, which is five kilometers from the city center, in 1903. Oman's population and economic conditions have been gradually developing, with the first municipal council established in the city in 1909. It became the center of the district directorate in 1914. Prior to the founding of modern Jordan in 1921, Amman was an important center, despite its small population, compared with other neighboring cities such as Salt, Nablus and Jerusalem. Its population after the end of the First World War was estimated at between 1,500 and 2,000 and slightly more people, mostly from Circassian immigrants, who were concentrated in the center of the country in the neighborhoods of Muhajireen, Shabassug, Al-Qurtabai, the locality of Azakh, Ashrafieh, Jabal Al-Taji and parts of Jabal Amman.
Greater Amman Municipality Percentage
The Greater Amman Secretariat celebrated its centennial in 2009, with the establishment of its first municipal council in 1909. The 100-year march of Oman has witnessed significant development in various fields, ranging from a small village to a modern capital, from my city council to the Greater Amman Municipality, and has overcome many difficulties and challenges, in addition to the development of the concept, level and quality of services provided to Omanis.
In a hundred years, from the founding of its first municipal council in 1909 until 2009, the city's presidency was followed by eighteen mayors (1909-1950), fourteen mayor (1950-1987), and nine mayor (1982-1987) 015).
Located on several mountains, Oman is about 750 meters above sea level and its first seven mountains, with an average height of 918 meters. The city of Aqaba is 360 kilometers south of Aqaba and the city of Irbid is about 80 kilometers north of the city. The Jordan River is 45 kilometers west of it. Neighboring cities are 80 kilometers from Jerusalem to the west, Damascus to the north, Baghdad to the east to 800 kilometers and Mecca to the south to 1,225 kilometers.
Oman is primarily situated over about 20 mountains along the length and breadth of the city. One of its top seven mountains is the Jabal al-Qaser, Jabal al-Jawfa, Jabal al-Taji, Jabal al-Nuzha, Jabal al-Nasr, Jabal al-Ashrafieh, Jabal al-Nazif, and Jabal al-Akhdar. in addition to Jabal Amman, Jabal al-Luebda, Jabal al-Hussein and Jabal al-Qalaa. Most of them are now in East Amman, and the terrain is:
- The northern region is made up of several mountains that are kind of rolling, such as in Jubayeh, Shafa Badran and Abu Naseer.
- The central region is the crossroads of the valleys with the Valley of Oman. It is a steep valley punctuated by high-profile rocky outcroppings and rolling rock layers on the foothills through which it passes, such as the Abdon Valley, the Saqra Valley and the Hadada Valley.
- The western region extends along the side of the Jordan Valley and is more than 1,000 meters high, as in the hills of al-Ali, al-Shamisani and Suwaylah.
- The eastern and south-eastern region, with its wavelength surface, is an arid desert territory extending to the Jordanian desert, as in Southern Marka and Qawisma.
organization of the city
and came and the worm
Oman is divided into two main parts:
- East Oman is the oldest part of the city.
- West Amman is the newest part of the city.
Amman was limited to circassians at the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century, but after it was declared the capital of the Emirate of East Jordan, and after that the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, urban expansion and a delegation of people from various regions increased. The modern city of Amman began to expand in the 1950s and 1960s, as new neighborhoods began to appear in West Amman.
At the beginning of 2007, the Greater Amman Municipality decided to annex land near Queen Alia International Airport south of the capital to become part of the city areas, such as Giza, Al-Hamam and Sahab, which doubled the area of Amman to 1,680 km². Within the plan for the coming years, the secretariat is moving towards urban expansion to the eastern and southern areas, where the use of the simplified land is easy. As part of plans to provide services to these new areas, Amanat Baghdad is preparing to construct a 26-kilometer light rail line between the southern regions of Amman and to the eastern city of Zarqa.
Western Oman has also seen rapid growth in the last two decades, with entire neighborhoods emerging. Amanat Amman is currently trying to set up ambitious development projects in eastern Amman.
Regions of Oman
The following list of the 27 major regions of Greater Amman, located in West and East Oman:
|Regions of Oman|
|4||Al-Qawisma, Al-Jawayda, Abu Alandah, and Al-Raqim||5||Yarmouk||6||Giza|
|22||Shifa Badran||23||make up||24||Tariq|
|25||Tal al-Ali, Umm al-Samaq, Khalda||26||Wadi Al-Seir||27||Zahran|
The terrain varies in rural areas of Amman between the plains, high mountains, and valleys. Tourist areas are surrounded by tourist areas throughout the capital, including the Amman National Park, the Bahrain Gardens, and the Water City in the south, passing through the beautiful nature of the Wadi al-Sir, Um al-Aswad, Hamra, Mais in the west, and ending with the villages of Zay and Dabin the north.
Downtown Amman is almost without forests, except for places such as the Sports City, the University of Jordan, the Hussein Gardens, the King Abdullah Gardens in front of them, and other forests on the airport road.
Planting forests began in Jordan more than 60 years ago. Most of the planting activities are carried out around the capital and residential cities, in addition to the cultivation of roadway areas, wind vests, and plantations. Trees are also planted as an integral part of the agriculture and forestry integrator systems.
In 1995, cultivation included about 1,000 kilometers of trees along roads, 7,000 kilometers of wind vests, protective belts, and 500 kilometers of trees along watercourses.
The weather in Amman is generally moderate, with a moderate climate prevailing in most areas of the capital, especially in the highlands. Some areas are semi-desert, especially in the eastern areas. Summer temperatures rise, reaching their highest levels in mid-August, sometimes as high as mid-thirties. Winter temperatures fall to zero or lower in January, causing snowfall on the highlands. The climate is moderate in spring and autumn.
As for rainfall rates, they are not available in some months, such as June, July and August. They are at their highest levels in January and February, and can reach more than 170 millimeters.
|Climate data for Oman|
|Average Temperature C||37.8||43.7||53.6||65.7||74.5||77.9||80.8||84.4||77.9||68.9||56.7||48.6||64.2|
|mean minimum temperature||25.0||29.3||38.5||41.4||48.6||58.1||67.5||65.1||56.5||47.3||41.5||34.7||46.1|
|The Shower Inch||2.36||2.30||1.73||0.33||0.11||0.00||0.0||0.0||0.00||0.33||1.03||1.97||10.16|
|Average Temperature C||3.2||6.5||12.0||18.7||23.6||25.5||27.1||29.1||25.5||20.5||13.7||9.2||17.9|
|mean minimum temperature||-3.9||-1.5||3.6||5.2||9.2||14.5||19.7||18.4||13.6||8.5||5.3||1.5||7.8|
The first human presence in the city of Amman dates back 9,000 years, with the ruins of Ain Ghazal in the east of the capital indicating this. During this long period, the city has had many civilizations, the most important of which were the Ammonites, and then the city was occupied by Greece, the Persians, the Romans, and the Byzantines. After the Islamic conquest of the Levant, human presence continued until it was forgotten at the end of the Mamluk era - that is, in the sixteenth century - until its rediscovery at the end of the nineteenth century, and the migration of various peoples from the Caucasus, each persecuted in his country, the Ottoman state distributed them on its territory, and Oman was one of those territories. With this, the history of human presence begins in modern Amman, where life began slowly to flow into contemporary Amman, after the Circassians first immigrated from the Caucasus in 1880 or shortly before, especially to the Shabsug and Muhajireen localities, and then to the Armenians and Chechens. Then, it did not happen that the city received many Arabs from various regions, especially those of Jordanian origin (some of whom lived in specific communities, such as the Al-Tafailah neighborhood, which is the largest gathering of the people of the governorates in the capital and located in Al-Jawfa Mountain), with the Palestinian citizens who emigrated from various regions of Palestine, and who increased considerably, until the Arabs became the absolute majority.
Oman is one of the fastest growing cities in the Middle East, and it is home to more than a third of the kingdom's population. The population of Greater Oman in its suburbs today is about 4 million, the vast majority of whom are Muslims. Christians are the second most religious component after Muslims, representing 6% of the population of all sects. The Jordanian Constitution also guarantees everyone the freedom to practice religion. The city's population has increased significantly after several important developments in the region, the first of which was the 1948 war and the 1967 war, when hundreds of thousands of Palestinians took refuge and were displaced. The events of the second Gulf War played a significant role as the number grew, with hundreds of thousands of Jordanians returning from Kuwait and other Gulf states between 1991 and 1992. In addition, the city's area doubled after large suburbs were annexed in 2007 (Greater Amman was formed). Arab residents from neighboring countries, particularly Syria and Iraq, are a significant part of the city's population, whose numbers have increased dramatically after both the US-led invasion of Iraq and the Syrian crisis. There are also hundreds of thousands of workers from Asian countries and Egypt. There are also many Western communities, most of which have cultural institutes and academic schools. The Greater Amman Municipality estimated that the city's population, less than its villages, will reach 6.4 million in 2025, three times the 2007 figure.
Omani society is currently a mix of families of different origins; East Jordan, Palestinian, Hijaz, Syrian, Kurdish minority. And it has been shown by a lot of famous people who have contributed to the rise of the city and the country in general on all levels and fields, such as literature, arts, engineering, medicine, sports, media, economics, technology, education, politics and the military.
With the exception of some of the Balqa tribes (such as al-Lawzi, Abu Qura, al-Abdullat and al-Udwan), there are no Omani residents. There are generations that have grown up over a century after the migration of hundreds of thousands of these neighboring areas, including nearby Jordanian cities such as Salt, Irbid, Tafileh, Karak and Maan. This comes after the city has been virtually without its inhabitants for centuries - since the sixteenth century - as a result of earthquakes, epidemics such as plague, and the neglect of the Ottomans during most of their reign in the Levant.
Oman has been receiving more people over the past six decades from countries whose people have been plagued by wars and revolutions. Like other cities in Jordan, the city has received many refugees from neighboring countries during the crises of the last century, particularly from Palestine, Lebanon, Iraq and Syria. Some enjoy staying and settling in Amman, and others choose to return to their country when things are stable or after migrating to other countries. Many are fused in Omani society, but a group remains in residential communities with their original identity, such as Palestinian refugee camps. Despite the great fusion that took place between them and most of society, many of them still live in camps. According to statistics from the UN Relief and Works Agency, nearly 20% of Jordan's Palestinians live in these camps. The agency, or UNRWA, oversees all 10 camps in the kingdom, which include the four Amman camps since al-Nakba: al-Buqa camp, al-Wehdat camp, Marka camp (Schler) and al-Hussein camp.
The city hosts hundreds of refugees from relatively far away countries, such as Somalia, Sudan and South Sudan. There are 44 refugee nationalities in Jordan, according to a 2014 report published by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees.
Transportation and roads
Oman's old urban planning has been a challenge to keep pace with the developments of the times and the needs of the city. Oman is not a wealthy city, but it has managed to overcome difficulties and is still creating new ways to resolve the city's previous crises. There are now several highways in Amman that link the city with other cities in the kingdom. There are Jordan Street, Istiqlal Street, Martyr Street, Belt Ring Road, Yajoz Road, Medical City Street, Al-Jamia Street, Blue Highway, Airport Street, and the desert road. The suspension bridge, the Wadi al-Hadadeh tunnel, the Oman Development Road and other new road facilities are among the most important projects undertaken by Greater Amman Municipality to alleviate congestion in the streets.
The Greater Amman Municipality (BRT) started the bus project in 2010. The bus speed network is one of the most important transportation projects Oman has seen to date. The project - whose first phase was completed in 2012 - was halted by Prime Minister Maruf al-Bakhit's government because of a corruption problem - aims to transform the city's mobility and mobility - a step that paves the way for a modern, viable city. The idea of a fast bus line depends on the allocation of lanes for public transport, and other vehicles are prohibited from using them. And so large numbers of people can be transported through these pathways quickly and easily. The transport capacity of each coach can be about 40,000 passengers per hour in each direction, while the transport capacity of the traditional coach used by cars, buses and other vehicles will not exceed 3,250 passengers. In addition, the cost of building a fast bus line is very acceptable, and may not exceed 5% of the cost of building a railway transport system, for example. Energy consumption and total emissions from bus transport are lower than those from normal vehicle transport. However, the project has caused a lot of controversy in the current period after it was halted, which has led to many popular accusations against its perpetrators.
Public transport buses on Al-Jamia Street
Abdon Suspension Bridge
Taxis in Amman feature green side panel
Taxi line in Khalda
The traditional transportation services in Amman are distributed between buses and cars, and there is a network of public transport vehicles called "taxi", meaning it runs on certain lines, and passengers share its use and payment of its rent. There is also a network of taxis that meet special requests distributed throughout the city. This is in addition to the tourist cars that are rented to be driven by the tourist himself. This is in addition to the Distinctive Taxi service and the Smart App Transportation service (such as the Cream & Uber apps). Bus networks within public transport services also serve the same purpose. There are two large bus complexes in the city, the North Bus Complex, and the South Complex.
Jordan's approach in the field of communications was acceptable, from a network that was almost useless in the eighties to the privatization of communications. Today, there are several private companies offering internet service and three companies providing mobile service and a distinguished land communications network and an abundance of phone numbers.
Amman Mutran: Queen Alia International Airport, completed in 1983, and Amman Civil Airport, used for regional civil aviation and military aviation. These two airports are operated by several airlines, and Royal Jordanian Airlines uses Queen Alia Airport and all other international airlines. Jordan Airways uses the Amman airport, as well as airlines that fly only within the region. The capacity of Queen Alia Airport has been increased from 3.2 million passengers per year to 9 million upon construction completion in 2012, becoming one of the most important international destinations in the region.
The Hejaz Railway Line, where the Amman Station is located, runs from Damascus to Mecca on the Greater Levant/Mecca Line. Work has been suspended since the early 20th century. The plant is located in the eastern Amman region, west of the Marka region and east of the Roman runway, near Marka international airport. This line is now used only for transporting passengers and goods between Amman and Damascus. Jordan is working on building another project that will generate profits on the Hijazi track, which will extend a light rail line between the southern regions of Amman and to al-Zarqa in the east, which will extend for 26 kilometers.
Architecture and urban planning
In its random growth, the city first followed the growth theory around one nucleus, as the nucleus was the Al-Hussaini Mosque and the commercial area extending from Ras Al-Ain to the site of the National Library (the headquarters of the old Amman Municipality) and on both sides of the Wadi Seil Amman. However, the growth process was not ring or circular around the nucleus, but was characterized by the addition of different sectors of space at one stage and different directions of development at different stages. The city's growth was the result of sudden convulsions caused by political factors that led to unexpected population explosions. It also affected the architectural character of the city, which has been cumulative over the last century. Oman's expansion at this stage has been two-way: The first is on the road between the center of the country and the Sir Valley, and the second is between the center of the country and Salt via Suwaylh, which linked these two areas to Oman. The roundabouts and along the two roads have spread in Amman and its fields, which are a testament to the city's evolution.
In 1956, the first structural blueprint for Oman was developed in the right sense, defining the city's form, functions, different uses, transport lines, transportation and other general characteristics. In 1964, the Secretariat of the Capital began the development of detailed regulations, which subsequently contributed to the application of the contents of the organizational plans, which were developed by the Planning Section of the Secretariat in cooperation with some United Nations experts.
However, the unexpected increase in the city's population as a result of successive wars in the region has not adopted the old totalitarian plan. Although there have been several other attempts, they have also been facing the same problem. More recently, the Greater Amman Municipality has witnessed significant development, with Amman expanding in a studied manner that has not been seen before. The North Amman City Plan won international awards, including the World Leadership Award for Urban Planning and the City Award for Asia 2007.
One of the most important urban social problems in Oman right now is the huge boom in population and urban growth. As the population grew, the city faced several problems: random areas, lack of housing, insufficient water, traffic problem within the city.
The built-up land in Amman is 640 km², which is 38% of the total area of the municipality, which is 1668 km², and the unbuilt land is 1027 km², at 62%. It turns out that commercial land is 20 km² by 5%, industrial land is 65 km² by 15%, public utilities (government institutions, schools, public parks ...) 20 km² by 5%, and agricultural land is 21 km² by 5%.
In addition to the streets of Amman, which covers 191 km² and covers 11% of the city's area, drawers are considered a feature of the ancient city of Amman. They spread on the foothills of its mountains to reach homes with one another when the streets could not perform that task. This is how these ancient drawers themselves are considered historic. These include: Kohl, loebda, ragdan and basman. The zodiac areas were recently located in just four areas: The new commercial center for the Al-Abdeli area, the center of main intersections (along the Abdon Valley corridor), the northern Amman gate (located in Al-Jubayah along Jordan Street), the southern Amman gate (the area adjacent to the airport road and surrounded by the ring road of the Abdon Valley).
Residential areas occupy the bulk of Amman's area. Housing sectors A, B, and C are located in the upscale neighborhoods of the capital, located in the western part of the capital, such as Shmisani, Sports City, Mount Amman, Abdon and Deir Gabar. The secretariat determines the sector according to several architectural and planning factors.
Amman was designated in 2010 as one of 14 Arab cities (or Global City), according to the British-based Global Cities and Globalization Study Group GaWC. Where classification takes into account: economic characteristics (e.g. stock market indicators / market value, financial services, gross domestic product), political characteristics (e.g. city size in terms of population or size of urban groupings, quality of living standards and city development, participation and influence in international events), cultural characteristics (e.g., city world famous, sports facilities, educational institutions, universities, world heritage sites, religious shrines), infrastructure (e.g. transportation system, airports, modern communications base such as fiber-optic mobile phone, health services like hospitals). Cities are chosen according to their application of these criteria, or lack of one another. Oman is ranked in the Gamma+ category, among the world's many urban categories.
Construction in Oman is generally characterized by stone as a key part of its four building facades. This is not limited to a certain part of the city, but West Amman is distinguished by its beauty, the quality of services, the proliferation of five-star hotels and most of the ministries that are built on exceptional foundations and standards in architecture and construction. The stones used in building the city of Amman have added a distinctive art and architectural character to a beautiful touch that encouraged engineers to practice their creativity in a wide variety of architecture using stone.
According to a group of architects, they have themselves created models of architecture in Amman, and confirmed that architecture in Jordan has been affected by the cultural heritage of the Islamic, Roman and Greek architectural cities of Amman. However, most of them said that Islamic art is a goal and a wish for them. The engineers shame on buildings they call the assembly buildings, where the design carries the characteristics of the West architecture, which are combined with the designs of the area without taking into account the architectural character of the area, its history, and other cultural and cultural considerations. Some of them are designing a building with more than one culture and heritage that engineers have called "dazzling style", which is devoid of content, inherited and geometric failure, and they have mentioned a number of these models in various places in Amman. Engineers have not denied the need sometimes to introduce modern building materials such as glass and metal sheets into a studied design that takes into account the development of Arab architecture, stating that such interference is required and there is no dust on it.
The facade of an Omani heritage house is a pink stone used in the neighborhoods of the old city.
Using a square curved line in one of the stone faces of a mosque.
The University of Jordan library, 1962, is an example of the international style of modern architecture in the city.
The architecture of Oman is numerous and cannot be restricted. There are many architectural cultures carried by Jordanian engineering graduates from the east and west, who returned after graduating to plant fruit on the city's sides and carry various architectural doctrines. As a result of that multiverse formation, it seems that there would have been enormous architectural chaos without the uniform use of the Jordanian stone in all these buildings. This led to the wide use of building blocks, which provide a picture to meet the need for the geographical nature of Oman and topography as a city surrounded by several mountains whose quarries formed a main supplier of stones to provide the city. However, the city's steady expansion over time has pushed it to search for a source of stones from other places in the kingdom and from the governorates of southern Jordan, especially from Maan province.
The al-Abdeli project, or the development project in al-Abdaly area, was started in 2005 and was expected to be completed in 2010. It will become the heart and center of the new Amman. The project is based on an area of 804 square kilometers, of a surface of more than 1.7 million square meters containing housing complexes, offices, hotels, serviced apartments, commercial shops and recreation centers; This will become the focus of business and housing in the Jordanian capital Amman.
Al-Abdeli was developed as a smart center for the city, where he brings together media and communications infrastructure to bring the most advanced technologies to every home, office and store, while public energy solutions and central gas systems are available to ensure a sound and friendly environment, as well as high energy bill savings. The city center will be fully equipped with technically advanced building management systems, fire protection, safety management and stand-by measures. Al-Abdaly's development project helped create excellent road networks and traffic solutions for the project and its interior, which provide for the smooth flow of 90,000 people a day when the project is fully operational.
places of worship
Muslims constitute the majority of the population of Amman, where they constitute 94%. Christians constitute the remaining 6% of the population of various sects. The constitution guarantees everyone the freedom to practice religion. The number of mosques in Jordan has increased remarkably recently, and in record numbers, it has increased significantly, exceeding neighboring Arab and Islamic countries. There are 6,243 mosques in the kingdom - of which Oman has a 25% share.
Most of the city's mosques were designed on the Umayyad and Fatimid models, due to the geographical nature that made Amman part of its architectural and cultural surroundings, which extend from Syria, Palestine, Lebanon to Egypt. It is worth noting that the Chechen and Circuses Muslim immigrants have built the city's first modern mosques since the end of the 19th century. Archeological mosques in their areas of presence - especially in Wadi al-Seer, Ras al-Ain and central Iraq - attest to this.
The Abu Darweesh Mosque, King Abdullah I Mosque, Al-Hussaini Mosque, King Hussein Mosque, Al-Shariaa Mosque, Abu Qura Mosque, Al-Kaloute Mosque, Al-Rawda Mosque, and Sedu Al-Kurdi Mosque are the largest and most famous mosques in the city. As for churches, there are dozens in Amman that serve all Christian denominations, the most important of which are: The church of the Master's entrance to the temple in Sufiya, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese, the Church of the Basharat Church, the Church of the Annunciation in Loebda, the Evangelical Union Church in Mount Amman, the Evangelical Good Shepherd Church in Umm Al-Somaq, the Baptist churches of Rabiah, Abu Naseer, Al-Shamisani, Khalda, Sawalah, and Sawileh, among others.
Culture and the arts
Serious signs of the emergence of a plastic movement in Amman began in the early 1950s. In 1951, the Arab Forum held its first collective exhibition in Jordan. A year later, the Music and Drawing Institute was established in the city. In the late 1950s, the government sent the first Jordanian envoys to study art abroad: Rafiq al-Laham, Muhanna al-Durra, Ahmed Naouash, Kamal Balata, and some of them joined the Academy of Fine Arts in Rome. In the 1960s, delegates began returning to Amman, practicing their art, and teaching painting in secondary schools. Upon their return, artistic activity increased, and the number of exhibitions held in Jerusalem and Amman doubled. The Ministry of Tourism also took the initiative to participate in the work of Jordanian artists in international exhibitions.
In 1966, the Department of Culture and Arts, affiliated with the Ministry of Information, was established to support and encourage fine arts, theater, music and literature. In 1972, the Department of Culture and Arts established the Institute of Arts and Music. It was intended to be the nucleus of an artistic academy, and the duration of study at the institute was two years.
There is no doubt that the Jordanian fine arts movement is considered one of the most active artistic movements in Amman, in comparison to the theatrical or musical movement, for example. The 1990s and the last years of the new millennium witnessed an eye-catching fine art activity. This activity was manifested in the abundance of art exhibitions held by Jordanian and Arab and international artists, and it was clear that there is something like emigration of Iraqi artists especially to Jordan since the beginning of permanent or temporary residence abroad, The number of art exhibitions has increased, and the number of private exhibition halls has increased dramatically. These halls attract the expertise of Jordanian, Arab and international artists, which indicates a growing number of artistic awareness among the public. 2003 She studies drawing, graphic design and other aspects of fine art, in addition to theater and music.
As for music, it has been present since the early 20th century, especially since there is an overlap between Bedouin and urban culture in the city. As for classical music, there is a national orchestra based in Amman, the Amman Symphony Orchestra, which was created by the National Conservatory of Music (King Hussein Foundation) and was supported by the Greater Amman Municipality. The orchestra performed its first concert in January 2007. The annual cultural season of the Amman Symphony Orchestra is full of a variety of public concerts, which will take place on the third Wednesday of each month.
Capital of Arab and Islamic Culture
Oman has witnessed an increase in local and Arab activities and festivals since it was declared the Capital of Arab Culture in 2002. These include the launch of the Jordanian Musical Heritage Theater project, the opening of the Arabic Sculpture Studio, the Amman Documentary Film Festival, the Comprehensive Exhibition of Arab Fine Arts, and the opening of Culture Street,
In 2017, Amman was declared the Capital of Islamic Culture for the Arab Region.
There are a large number of exhibitions in Oman, fine arts centers and several popular markets showcasing the works of artists in the center of the country, Jabal Amman and Jabal al-Leubeda. These places have seen a qualitative cultural movement in the last two decades, during the most famous of these centers; The Arts Department, the Club House, the Rammal professional of arts and many other exhibitions. It is worth mentioning that the Ministry of Culture in Jordan recently adopted an experiment in cultural cities, the so-called Jordanian Capital of Culture, as happened in Irbid, Salt, Karak, Zarqa and Maan, respectively. This has allowed for greater cultural and literary openness to the remaining Jordanian cities, not to confine them to the capital, which has previously won the title of the Arab Capital of Culture.
Central Amman Cultural Center
The Ras Al-Ain area includes many cultural facilities that complement the role of the Greater Amman Municipality in its revival, starting with the Al-Noreen Mosque, the Fountains Square, the Palm Yard, the City Hall, the Greater Amman Municipality staff building, and ending with the Al-Hussein Cultural Center. The area of the project is about 20 dunams of the 143 dunams. The space includes Amanat Baghdad's headquarters, the Jordan Museum, the Al-Hussein Cultural Center Theater, the National Institute of Music and the Popular Crafts Market. The King Abdullah II House of Culture and Arts was also scheduled to be implemented in this area, but it was stopped and turned into a popular market in 2014.
Oman has a large number of museums, such as the National Museum of Fine Arts, the Museum of Popular Fashion, the Mushaf Museum, the Parliamentary Life Museum, the Jordan Museum of Antiquities, the Children's Museum, the Royal Automobile Museum, the Cultural Village at Hussein Gardens, and a large number of foreign cultural centers.
Jabal Amman also has a handicraft and folk culture market called Souk Gara, a seasonal market that starts every Friday during May and ends in October. The Amman Mountain People's Association organizes it annually. Tourists frequent it during the summer.
Every year, the city hosts international and local cultural festivals; The most important of these is the International Book Fair, the Amman Theatrical Days Festival, the Jordan Festival, the Music and Sufi Songs Festival, the Amman Summer Festival for Contemporary Dance, the Amman Comedy Festival, and others.
Al-Hussein Cultural Center
National Institute of Music
Royal Automobile Museum
Stated Martyr Museum
Ancient Edium Theater
Royal Cultural Center
Palace of Culture
Most of the major Jordanian newspapers and broadcasting centers are in Amman. The city also serves as a media center for international journalists who come to cover news of the region's renewal, whether in Palestine, Iraq, Syria or elsewhere.
The Jordan News Agency, the official news agency in Jordan, was established in Amman in 1969. The Jordanian Media City was founded in 2001, the first of its kind in the Levant, and is hoped to make Amman a major hub for satellite broadcasting networks. Now there are a lot of stations from which they transmit. Amman is trying to compete with other cities that have expertise in the media, such as Beirut, Dubai and Cairo. Established in 2003, the Royal Film Commission of Jordan is an institution that provides support for the production of films and television series in Jordan and for training young filmmakers, filmmakers and professionals from Jordan and the region in all fields of cinema and television production. The Authority offers year-round training programs and workshops to build a world-class modern and leading film industry in Jordan, so that all Middle Eastern filmmakers can produce marine films alongside the world's most talented artists.
The Ottoman lira was the currency of Oman during the Ottoman period. The Egyptian pound was temporarily used until it was issued in 1927. It was adopted in the state and was used until the early 1950s when the Jordanian dinar was issued and became the official currency. The US dollar and the euro are used in addition to the dinar in buying and selling operations. The people of Oman still use the word Lira despite their treatment of the dinar because of the long influence of the Ottomans who ruled the Levant for nearly 4 centuries.
Amman is now considered a center of economic life in Jordan, whose economy has been recovering with the return of capital and investors from Kuwait and the Gulf in 1990. Development plans are beginning to find their way into the city through the establishment of many projects. The city's economy relies heavily on the construction, banking, insurance and trade sectors, and on tourism and hospitality, in addition to its food and light and medium industries. Major Jordanian companies and a number of regional and international companies are based in the city. Many citizens of the Arab Gulf states and wealthy Arabs also own real estate and business in West Oman. In the last two decades, many Gulf, Arab, and international companies have invested in Oman, led by Kuwaiti companies.
Amman ranked first among Arab cities in terms of cost of living in 2007 - according to the British Economist. The rise in housing, real estate and land prices, along with the rise in oil prices, which has affected production costs and increased import value, led to Oman's ranking on the list of the most expensive Arab cities.
Amman Stock Exchange and Amman Chamber of Commerce
The Amman Stock Exchange was established in 1999 as an independent institution run by the private sector to practice working as an organized stock exchange in the Kingdom. The stock exchange provides electronic systems, interconnections and halls equipped with modern tools and technology. Monitor the operations of trading on the market and coordinate with the Authority in following up on these operations. It has also developed standards of professional conduct to ensure that its members adhere to the principles of proper handling, and is keen to ensure the prompt and correct dissemination of information to all interested persons at the same time. As for the Amman Chamber of Commerce, it consists of 12 members elected by direct and free voting by the members of the Chamber's General Board, who number about 35,000 members. The council's term is four years.
Trade has flourished in Amman since ancient times, with several old markets: the sugar market, al-bukhara market, Friday market, Wadi al-Srour market, vegetable market, al-Yamania market, grain market, al-halal market, jewelry market, al-Saada market, al-Anteka market and modern construction market. As for the old Al-Bukhara market, which weaves the lines of the story of a sheik from Boukhari who came to Amman like other merchants, he founded this old market in a square east of the current Al-Hussaini mosque in 1934. The market remained in place until 1954. After that, he was transferred to the Mufti's building on King Talal Street. They can be classified as shops selling barbers' tools and supplies, sewing and embroidery supplies, sewing and embroidery supplies, tailoring and costly workshops, as well as shops selling accessories, textiles and perfumes and perfume.
In spite of this commercial diversity in the capital, Amman, between the old markets and modern malls, which differ in form and content, the spread of all types and contents of street vendors continues to occur in the streets of markets in Amman.
One of the city's biggest modern shopping malls is City Mall, Mecca Mall, Taj Mall, Amman Mall, and Galeria Mall.
The Greater Amman Municipality, in collaboration with the Ministry of Industry and Trade, has followed the standards in defining industrial zones. Therefore, the Greater Amman Secretariat has conducted an intensive study and analysis of the options of suitable sites to qualify them as the industrial zones:
- Sahab area - Al-Mowqir corridor: This area has been classified as light and medium industries, taking into account existing industries in this area and providing a geographical distance from residential areas in al-Moqir and al-Naqoura.
- Industrial area: Taking into account the current industrial situation in the Al Qastal area, this area is located southeast of the airport road where it is classified as specialized industries such as research, business and technology. The rest of the land in this area has been classified as light and medium industries to support the specialized industries in the same area, and also to allow this area to provide large geographic areas for industrial purposes.
- Giza Industrial Zone: The southern Giza region has been identified as a light and medium-sized industrial area, taking into account the existing industries in that area. This area will be a labor attraction because of the housing projects that will be built nearby, such as a housing construction project.
There are several industrial zones, including a number of agencies and many auto repair shops, located on the outskirts of the capital, such as in the south-west, Safut to the north-west, Marka to the north-east, Wadi Rum to the east, and units to the south of the city.
The city of Amman is known for its rich and abundant yield area. Old sources, including the Torah, described it as a "city of water" with a lot of water. Arab geographers and historians also called the Amman area "fertile, developed and very expensive". And what Oman is famous for: The numerous grains, especially wheat, were described as the mineral of grains, until the example was given of the quality of their wheat. We have seen that they and Salalah used to supply Jerusalem and some Palestinian cities with wheat after Salah Al-Din liberated them from the crusaders. Salah Al-Din made a condition on his brother, who was in his sectors, that he should send the wheat and he did.
Oman is also famous for its fine fat sheep and sweet honey, and there are many grapes that have been made of wine and raisins. There are also many fig trees, including the dried figs, and it is famous for its many fruits, oak trees, and others.
Al-Balqa was described in the Middle Ages as a village, farms, and land so clean that its villages reached Neva and 300 villages. As for its farms, they are widespread, including a farm belonging to Abu Sufyan, the leader of Quraish, and a farm belonging to Yusif bin Amr, the wali of Iraq. Jadia, a village in Balqa, was also known for its saffron, which he used to grow. He was also important because the Europeans used it as a medicine. Amman also exported runes, which are round wooden races in the thickness of fingers, and are called Levantine rabid or Roand of beasts, because the veterinarians drive them to animals if they besiege their liver. It's a non-Chinese ruand it's kind of a bow-like Chinese that's used in human therapy, like liver, kidney, and colic pain.
As for its small river, which was mentioned by the geography, baths were erected on it in different eras to serve its inhabitants. Outside it, the wind was used to grind flour, and this freedom served the residents of neighboring villages.
The number of tourists, especially from Arab countries, is on the rise in Oman during the summer. The moderate Mediterranean climate helps attract this category, in addition to holding many cultural festivals and various artistic activities. There are a number of places to visit in the city such as tourist areas, summer resorts and recreation areas, as well as important historical sites telling the story of the city, the most important of which are the Roman amphitheater, the Amman Citadel and the Amman Roll Stone. The city also has many restaurants and cafes that serve Eastern and Western foods, especially those located on the outskirts of the capital and outside it in the middle of forests and forest trees, such as the Ajloun Mountains, Dubai and the Pomegranate Hills. Most of these restaurants and parks have children's courts or swimming pools, which make them a real pleasure for all family members. In Amman and other Jordanian cities, the traditional crafts and manufacturing markets - textiles, embroidery, jewelry, ceramics and glass - are in place. There are also large shopping centers, which include multiple shops and display modern clothing for international fashion stores.
Many specialized sports clubs, such as horse riding and swimming clubs and health clubs, are located in Amman, where visitors can spend a good and enjoyable time. In the summer, there are summer clubs for multi-purpose adventures, diving, swimming and computers, in which Arab children and young people are participating, in addition to Jordanians, to practice their various sports. Recreational cities, parks, public parks, and playgrounds for children are also popular.
The most important areas visited by tourists include the areas of Culture Street, Abdon, Al-Wakalat Street, Souq Al-Suwayfiya, Al-Rabia Market, Mecca Street, Al-Madina Street, Al-Boubeda Street, Al-Rainbow Street, Jabal Al-Hussein Market, Umm Adina Market, and the downtown areas. These areas include a variety of restaurants and cafes of an eastern and western character. In addition to Jordanian restaurants, tourists can see many Lebanese, Italian, French, Turkish, Chinese, Indian, American fast food restaurants, Iraqi, Yemeni and Gulf restaurants.
On Nov. 9, 2005, Amman witnessed what is popularly known as "Black Wednesday", which represented a violent blow to tourism in the city and the country in general. Several terrorist suicide operations led to the explosion of three of its hotels, in which three of the attackers were killed and the fourth, a woman, was arrested. The explosions claimed the lives of 65 civilians, including Syrian director Mustafa Al-Aqqad and his daughter, and injured many others in Jrouj. This greatly affected residents and tourist delegations, but by tightening security and taking the appropriate measures, they quickly regained their previous status, receiving visitors throughout the year, especially during the summer season when expatriates return, tourists and summer vacationers visit summer, and increasing recreational and cultural activities such as the former Jerash Festival, the Amman Festival.
There are at least 36 four- and five-star hotels in Amman, most of which are built in West Amman. Many of them are affiliated with a global hotel chain such as the Intercontinental Hotel in Jordan, Four Seasons, Meridian, Grand Hayat, Radisson SAS and Sheraton. The Al-Ruyal Hotel in Amman is unique in its architectural style, as it appears in the horizon of the city as a castle above Jabal Amman.
On the Citadel, which is located above the old city, the Herculean Temple, built by the Romans in the second century A.D., rises to the remains of an ancient Ammonite temple, as well as to the Museum of Antiquities, which contains numerous exhibits of various civilizations and instruments representing human life in these ancient eras. In the center of the city is the path of the Horaiat, and close to the road, the large Roman amphitheater, which can accommodate 5,000 spectators, and other landmarks that have been used to this day in various cultural and artistic events, stands out. These are centers used by the Jordan Festival and are held in it:
|Roman theater||Nymphaeum||Ain Ghazal||Cave People Cave|
|Jabal Al-Qalaa and the Umayyad Palace||Roman Square in the center of the city||Prince Iraq Palace||Canopic stoning of the Valley of Sakra|
|Al-Hussaini Mosque||Belal Bin Rabah||Maqam Abd El-Rahman Bin Auf||Jordan Antiquities Museum|
|Amman Station and Ten Bridges||Raghdan Palace||El-Belbisi Palace||Hashemite Square|
Parks and recreational and sports facilities
The city's urban planning takes into account the diversity of recreational areas in their quality and location, and there are persistent attempts to increase them. Most of the new is located on the outskirts of the city on both sides of the ring road for easy access.
|Al-Hussein Sports City||King Abdullah Gardens||Global Village (Amman)||Airport Rally Racing Circuit|
|Amman National Park||Forest of the Kingdom of Bahrain||water city||Gardens of Queen Rania|
|Gardens of Hussein||Orthodox Club||Al-Jawad Al-Arabi||Dions Club|
|Al-Jubayah Recreational City||Royal Race Club||Al-Ahli Club||King Abdullah Stadium|
According to the World Bank, Jordan is the first in the region and the fifth in the world. There are a number of public and private hospitals in Amman, frequented by Arab patients from the Arab Gulf, Iraq, Yemen and the Arab Maghreb. What attracts patients is lower prices and higher quality treatment procedures in Europe and the United States. The medical field in Oman is characterized by its exceptional skill and experience in the field of heart disease and surgery, as well as the application of many microsurgeries in terms of eyes, kidneys and lungs.
With the establishment of the Emirate of East Jordan in the early 1920s, Amman witnessed a medical renaissance through the establishment of a number of government hospitals, the first of which was the Municipality Hospital and then the Government Hospital in 1926. The first was the Malhas hospital in Jabal Amman, in 1944. Oman continued to develop its medical infrastructure during the subsequent decades. The Hussein Medical City was built in 1973, the first Arab medical city.
In the 1990s, health services were expanding qualitatively and quantitatively at all levels, and the medical sectors working in the government and private sector. After 1990, the private sector witnessed steady growth in the number of hospitals, the most important of which were specialized hospitals, Jordan Hospital, Istiqlal Hospital, Al-Israa Hospital, Prince Hamza Hospital, and many other hospitals that received international dependence from the World Health Organization.
The most important of these achievements, however, is the construction of the Al-Hussein Cancer Center, which was established in 1997 to become the first specialized center for cancer treatment to obtain special funding for cancer diseases outside the United States.
The following table shows the most important hospitals in Oman:
|Hussein Medical City||Arab Heart Surgery Center||Jordan Hospital||University of Jordan Hospital||Khalidi Hospital|
|Islamic Hospital||Al-Israa Hospital||Farah Maternity Hospital||Specialist Hospital||Queen Alia Hospital|
|Ibn al-Haytham Hospital||Lozmila Hospital||Specialist Ophthalmology Hospital||Queen Zein Al-Sharaf Hospital||Al-Bashir Hospital|
|consulting hospital||Al-Hussein Cancer Center||Prince Hamzah Hospital||and a number of government clinics||and a number of private clinics|
The beginnings of education in Amman date back to the period of World War I, in 1916, when the Dar al-Najah school was opened, located behind the Al-Husseini Grand Mosque. The school was in Turkish, except for the Arabic-language teaching of religion.
During the 1950s and 1960s, the city witnessed a qualitative leap in the field of education, followed by higher education, with the establishment of the University of Jordan. This boom has increased significantly in the 1980s and 1990s, and the private education sector has seen a remarkable boom, with Oman the lead in the Middle East.
Schools and colleges
In July 2003, the Jordanian government launched an ambitious program across the Middle East and North Africa, the Education Reform for a Knowledge-Based Economy, a ten-year multi-donor program that the World Bank has provided $120 million. The program sought to reorient education policies and programs in line with the needs of a knowledge-based economy, improve the physical education environment in most schools and promote early childhood education. The first phase of the program ran from 2003 to 2009 and concluded in June 2009.
Schools in Oman are either public or private. The private education sector employs more than 31.14% of students in Oman. This sector still bears heavy taxes of up to 25%, although it bears a heavy burden on the Kingdom's government, which makes tuition fees relatively high, ranging from $1,000 to $7,000. Private education fees are very high when compared to household income on average.
of the most famous schools in the city; Islamic Scientific College, Bishop's Schools, Al-Farir School, Sisters of Pink School, Al-Hussein College, Sisters of Nazareth School, Age Schools, Jubilee School, Latin Patriarchal School and many others.
Jordan's Education Initiative recently won the UNESCO Prize for the Use of Information and Communication Technology in Education. This pioneering educational project in Jordanian schools is based on the use of the power of information and technology through proven teaching methods to change the learning environment in schools.
In addition, there are many private colleges and institutes that grant diplomas in most disciplines: such as Al-Quds College, Arab Academy of Financial and Banking Sciences, Talal Abu-Ghazaleh College of Business Administration, Intermediate University College, Royal Academy of Aviation and other colleges.
As for higher education, Amman has a large number of universities, compared to the number of the city's population, whether on a private or public level, such as the University of Jordan, the University of Applied Sciences, the University of Petra, the German University of Jordan, the Princess Sumaya University of Technology, the University of Al-Zaytouneh, the University of Applied Balqa.
Holders of the General Secondary School Certificate may be admitted to public or private universities or colleges. Most universities in Amman and Jordan generally apply the American university model based on the watch system (in English: Credit Hours) give students the flexibility to choose the number of hours and hours of morning or evening work. There are two government universities associated with universities in the United States and the United Kingdom. There are also more than five private universities recognized in the Arab world, and some foreign universities, such as the University of New York and the German University of Jordan. Every year, Jordanian universities in Amman and other Jordanian cities attract a large number of foreign Arab and non-Arab students.
Jordan has the largest number of research and development researchers per million people in all 57 member countries of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). It is one of the highest rates in the world, with 8,060 researchers per million. The global average is 2,532. The average in the European Union is 6,494, while the average in OIC countries is 6499.
Oman has many well-established scientific research centers in all its branches, including the most important; The Royal Scientific Society (founded in 1970), which aims to develop scientific and technological cooperation with similar institutions worldwide.
The Royal Jordanian Geographic Center (founded in 1975) is considered one of the advanced centers at the regional and international levels in the field of surveying, cartography, studies and applied research based on space and aerial imagery. Since its inception, the center has provided skilled professionals in the field of surveying, mapping and related sciences such as remote sensing, digital maps, and space geodesic. This has been done through training outside the Kingdom in developed countries and inside the Kingdom at the Royal Jordanian Center for Spatial Sciences.
There are also many other associations and centers that are interested in various fields, including medicine, energy, engineering, arts and others.
Amman is one of the most important Arab cities in Asia in terms of youth and sports in general. This is evident in the number of sports complexes and cities allocated for youth, which positively affected Jordan's participation in many Arab, regional, and international championships, especially in football and basketball, which have received a lot of attention from young Jordanians. Self-defense, swimming, tennis, hand and equestrian games are also games that are passionately popular with young people in this city. The Supreme Council for Youth has also contributed to developing the capabilities of young people in all aspects of life by deploying youth centers in various provinces across the kingdom.
One of the most popular clubs in Omani football is al-Wihdat (the Quwaysat International Stadium in al-Wehdat), al-Faisaly (the Amman International Stadium as headquarters) and other clubs such as al-Buka. It also hosts Zain, Orthodox, Applied and Irina... There is a lot of interest in the Jordanian public and basketball fans.
There has been a sense of Jordanian leadership since the mid-1960s. Jordanian youth need to establish a leadership center that serves young people in all fields to highlight their abilities and creativity and keep pace with progress and development. The Sports City, or Al-Hussein Youth City, is located in the heart of the capital, Amman. It covers an area of about 1,200 dunams, one third of which is covered by trees. Construction of the city began in 1964 and took about four years.
Amman is suffering from a continued rise in prices, with the most expensive cities in the Middle East and North Africa in terms of living costs, according to the British Economist in 2007 and 2015. The report indicated that the Jordanian capital ranked 44 on the list of the most expensive cities in the world, 48th in the world for 2015, from 52nd in 2014, making it among the 50th most expensive cities in the world, among 133 listed in the report.
The unexpected increase in the city's population as a result of successive wars in the region has led to a failure to adopt the comprehensive plan established in 1956, which is considered the first structural blueprint for Oman in the right sense, and which defined the city's form, functions, various uses, transportation lines, and other general characteristics. Most of Amman's neighborhoods today suffer from random growth, even in upscale neighborhoods, although they are classified as A, B, C, etc., based on the construction and organizational factors specific to the Greater Amman Municipality's laws. The subdivisions of many land areas are random and overlapping. A small number of housing is also unplanned, expanding in unstructured directions, leading to unplanned services where the population lives. In addition to the meager green areas for buildings, the rest of them are rapidly eroded to be replaced by housing. Public parks are very limited.
However, Amman has recently begun to expand in a studied manner, as the city's comprehensive plan has won international awards, including the World Leadership Award in Urban Planning and the City Award for Asia 2007.
The deteriorating political situation in the region and its consequences, represented by the waves of refugees from neighboring Jordan, have led to a sudden and dramatic increase in the number of Jordanians living abroad over the past decades. The return of thousands of expatriates has led to a dramatic increase in the city's population, which in turn affected the already modest network of roads. The city suffers from a lack of future planning for its streets, which did not take so many users into account. Roads in Oman are largely unexpandable to accommodate the growing number of vehicles, and the government is lagging in finding radical solutions to the problem.
On the other hand, Oman is one of the world's least mass transit cities, using only 14% of the city's total population (2010). The latest statistics indicate that there are more than one million cars driving in Amman, most of which are for the transport of one person. As a result of these problems, the government is trying to find alternative solutions to the use of vehicles, the most important of which is the highway project. In the long run, I announced plans to build tram or metro lines parallel to a fast bus, which is a necessary and immediate solution due to the traffic jams in the city, especially during the summer.
poor distribution of services
Like most Arab cities, Oman suffers from a variety of life and construction patterns between its old and modern neighborhoods. But what is different in Oman is related to its village origin, its village origin and its rural character. The eastern part of the city is the oldest and most densely populated part, which in general is clearly suffering from the poor distribution of services and the limited presence of major governmental institutions, most of which are concentrated in the western part.
In addition, the urban style in East Amman is characterized by the compact of residential buildings built mostly from bricks. However, the towers, which include major companies, hotels, and shopping malls, are now occupying large areas of western Amman, where construction is characterized by a limestone masonry.
It does not end up with the characteristics of urban construction, the social level and the standard of living of the population, but rather with civil and engineering planning. The streets and sidewalks in eastern Amman in general are narrow and poorly maintained, unlike many of the streets of western Amman. The level of cleanliness in West Amman is also evident when compared with the old city neighborhoods, which are littered with dirt on the sides of their streets and containers, in addition to sewage problems.
In addition, most of Amman's eastern neighborhoods suffer from cultural marginalization and a scarcity of social activities in western Amman. In addition to social marginalization, Oman is divided into two parts. The first part is in the western part, and most of its inhabitants are rich and affluent.
As for environmental pollution, the eastern and central parts of Amman suffer from several sources of pollution, the most important of which is water pollution, represented by the Zarqa Flood, which passes through the Flood Ceiling area in the center of the country, and the water drains in Marka, which are rarely found in the western neighborhoods of Amman.
Mayors of Oman
Starting in 1909, the first city council was established in the center of the country:
|Mayors of Amman (1909-1950)|
|Ismail Babouk (1909-1911)||Ahmed Al-Khatib (1911-1915)||Asad Hamdukh (1915-1919)|
|Ayoub Fakhri (1919-1920)||Said Khair (1920-1925)||Yussef Asfour (1925-1931)|
|Tahir al-Juqah (1931-1933)||Aladdin Touqan (1933-1937)||Sameh Hijazi (1937-1938)|
|Said Al-Mufti (1938-1939)||Hashim Khair (1939-1942)||Omar Hikmat (1942-1942)|
|Subhi Kahalah (1942-1943)||Umar Zaki-al-Aviouni (1943-1944)||Raafat Al-Djani (1944-1945)|
|Kamal Al-Jayousi (1945-1945)||Sameh Hijazi (1945-1948)||Abdul Majeed al-Adwan (1948-1948)|
|Majali's shaking (1948-1950)|
|Metropolitan Secretaries (1953-1986)|
|Farhan Shubaylat (1953-1955)||Omar Matar (1955-1957)||Daifallah Mahmoud (1957-1960)|
|Husni Sedo al-Kurdi (1960-1962)||Bashir al-Shreiki (1962-1964)||Ahmad Fawzi (1964-1973)|
|Mohammed Touqan (1973-1976)||Maan Abu Nawar (1976-1979)||Essam Al-Ajlouni (1980-1982)|
|Abdul Raouf al-Rawabdeh (1983-1986)|
|Secretaries of the Greater Amman Municipality (1986-now)|
|Abdul Raouf al-Rawabdeh (1987-1989)||Ali Suhaymat (1989-1991)||Mohammed Al-Bashir (1991-1993)|
|Mamdouh Al-Abbadi (1993-1998)||Nidal Hadid (1998-2006)||Omar Al-Maani (2006-2011)|
|Ammar Gharaybeh (2011-2012) *||Abdul Halim Al-Kilani (2012-2013) *||Beltagi mind (2013-2017)|
|Yousef Al-Shorba (2017) *|
|* Temporary Chair of the Council of the Greater Amman Municipality|
Official holidays in Oman are the same as those in the kingdom as a whole.
|Public holidays in Oman for 2008|
|1||New Year||January 1||1 day (1)|
|2||Hijri New Year||Muharram 1||1 day (1)|
|1||Dhikra Al-Mawlid Al-Nabawi||Rabiʻ I 12||1 day (1)|
|4||Eid Al-Fitr||Shawwal 1||Three Days (3)|
|5||Eid al-Adha||Dhuʻl-Hijjah 9||Four Days (4)|
|6||Christmas||December 25||One day (1) for Muslims, two days for Christians (2)|
|7||Easter||on the eastern account||Two (2) days for Christians only|
|8||one of the poets||on the eastern account||One Day (1) for Christians only|
|9||International Labor Day||May 1||1 day (1)|
|10||Independence Day||May 25||1 day (1)|
Oman's sister cities are:
| || |
Gamal Abdel Nasser Square (Interior)
Amman at night. It looks like the Royal Hotel
Ashrafieh Mountain, apparently, from the Umayyad Mosque
Al-Amana Mosque next to Greater Amman Municipality Building and Jordan Museum
New center of the city (Ras Al-Ain, Capital City Municipality)
Notes and Resources
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- Asia portal
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- Ancient Greek portal
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- archeology portal
- Amman Gate